CTCP Information

    From: ben@gnu.ai.mit.edu
    Date: Fri, 12 Aug 94 00:21:54 edt

    As part of documenting the ZenIRC client, I expanded, revised, and
    merged two text files that have been around on IRC archive sites for
    some time: ctcp.doc, and dcc.protocol. The file "ctcp.doc" by Klaus
    Zeuge described the basic CTCP protocol, and most of the CTCP commands
    other than DCC.  The file Troy Rollo wrote, "dcc.protocol", contained
    a description of the CTCP DCC messages as well as the protocols used
    by DCC CHAT and DCC file transfers. I have merged the two documents to
    produce this one, edited them for clarity, and expanded on them where I
    found them unclear while implementing CTCP in the ZenIRC client.


The Client-To-Client Protocol (CTCP)

Klaus Zeuge <sojge@Minsk.DoCS.UU.SE> Troy Rollo <troy@plod.cbme.unsw.oz.au> Ben Mesander <ben@gnu.ai.mit.edu>

The Client-To-Client Protocol is meant to be used as a way to

	1/	in general send structured data (such as graphics,
		voice and different font information) between users
		clients, and in a more specific case:
	2/	place a query to a users client and getting an answer.


Characters between an Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client and server are 8 bit bytes (also known as octets) and can have numeric values from octal \000 to \377 inclusive (0 to 255 decimal). Some characters are special:

	CHARS	::= '\000' .. '\377' 
	NUL	::= '\000'
	NL	::= '\n'
	CR	::= '\r'

Note: `\’ followed by three digits is used to denote an octal value in this

      paper. `\' followed by an alphabetic character is used to denote a C
      language style special character, and `..' denotes a range of characters.

A line sent to a server, or received from a server (here called “low level messages”) consist or zero or more octets (expcept NUL, NL or CR) with either a NL or CR appended.

	L-CHARS	::= '\001' .. '\011' | '\013' | '\014' |
		    '\016' .. '\377'

Note: The `*’ is used here to denote “zero or more of the preceding class of

      characters", and the `|' is used to denote alternation.

A NUL is never sent to the server.


Even though messages to and from IRC servers cannot contain NUL, NL, or CR, it still might be desirable to send ANY character (in so called “middle level messages”) between clients. In order for this to be possible, those three characters have to be quoted. Therefore a quote character is needed. Of course, the quote character itself has to be quoted too, since it is in-band.

	M-QUOTE	::= '\020'

(Ie a CNTRL/P).

When sending a middle level message, if there is a character in the set { NUL, NL, CR, M-QUOTE } present in the message, that character is replaced by a two character sequence according to the following table:

	NUL	--> M-QUOTE '0'
	NL	--> M-QUOTE 'n'
	CR	--> M-QUOTE 'r'

When receiving a low level message, if there is a M-QUOTE, look at the next character, and replace those two according to the following table to get the corresponding middle level message:

	M-QUOTE '0'	--> NUL
	M-QUOTE 'n'	--> NL
	M-QUOTE 'r'	--> CR

If the character following M-QUOTE is not any of the listed characters, that is an error, so drop the M-QUOTE character from the message, optionally warning the user about it. For example, a string ‘x’ M-QUOTE ‘y’ ‘z’ from a server dequotes into ‘x ‘y’ ‘z’.

Before low level quoting, a message to the server (and in the opposite direction: after low level dequoting, a message from the server) looks like:



To send both extended data and query/reply pairs between clients, an extended data format is needed. The extended data are sent in the text part of a middle level message (and after low level quoting, in the text part of the low level message).

To send extended data inside the middle level message, we need some way to delimit it. This is done by starting and ending extended data with a delimiter character, defined as:

	X-DELIM	::= '\001'

As both the starting and ending delimiter looks the same, the first X-DELIM is called the odd delimiter, and the one that follows, the even delimiter. The next one after that, an odd delimiter, then and even, and so on.

When data are quoted (and conversely, before being dequoted) any number of characters of any kind except X-DELIM can be used in the extended data inside the X-DELIM pair.

	X-CHR	::= '\000' | '\002' .. '\377'

An extended message is either empty (nothing between the odd and even delimiter), has one or more non-space characters (any character but ‘\040’) or has one or more non-space characters followed by a space followed by zero or more characters.

	X-N-AS	::= '\000'  | '\002' .. '\037' | '\041' .. '\377'
	SPC	::= '\040'
	X-MSG	::= | X-N-AS+ | X-N-AS+ SPC X-CHR*

Note: Here `+’ is used to denote “one or more of the previous class of

      characters", and `*' is used to denote "zero or more of the previous 
      class of characters".

The characters up until the first SPC (or if no SPC, all of the X-MSG) is called the tag of the extended message. The tag is used to denote what kind of extended data is used.

The tag can be *any* string of characters, and if it contains alphabetics, it is case sensitive, so upper and lower case matters.

Extended data is only valid in PRIVMSG and NOTICE commands. If the extended data is a reply to a query, it is sent in a NOTICE, otherwise it is sent in a PRIVMSG. Both PRIVMSG and NOTICE to a user and to a channel may contain extended data.

The text part of a PRIVMSG or NOTICE might contain zero or more extended messages, intermixed with zero or more chunks of non-extended data.


In order to be able to send the delimiter X-DELIM inside an extended data message, it has to be quoted. This introduces another quote
character (which differs from the low level quote character so it won’t have to be quoted yet again).

	X-QUOTE	::=	'\134'

(a back slash – `\’).

When quoting on the CTCP level, only the actual CTCP message (extended data, queries, replies) are quoted. This enables users to actually send X-QUOTE characters at will. The following translations should be used:

	X-DELIM	--> X-QUOTE 'a'

and when dequoting on the CTCP level, only CTCP messages are dequoted whereby the following table is used.

	X-QUOTE 'a'	--> X-DELIM

If an X-QUOTE is seen with a character following it other than the ones above, that is an error and the X-QUOTE character should be dropped. For example the CTCP-quoted string ‘x’ X-QUOTE ‘y’ ‘z’ becomes after dequoting, the three character string ‘x’ ‘y’ ‘z’.

If a X-DELIM is found outside a CTCP message, the message will contain the X-DELIM. (This should only happen with the last X-DELIM when there are an odd number of X-DELIM’s in a middle level message.)


There are three levels of messages. The highest level (H) is the text on the user-to-client level. The middle layer (M) is on the level where CTCP quoting has been applied to the H-level message. The lowest level (L) is on the client-to-server level, where low level quoting has been applied to the M-level message.

The following relations are true, with lowQuote(message) being a function doing the low level quoting, lowDequote(message) the low level dequoting function, ctcpQuote(message) the CTCP level quoting function, ctcpDequote(message) the CTCP level dequoting function, and ctcpExtract(message) the function which removes all CTCP messages from a message:

	L = lowQuote(M)
	M = ctcpDequote(L)

	M = ctcpQuote(H)
	H = ctcpDequote(ctcpExtract(M))

When sending a CTCP message embedded in normal text:

	M = ctcpQuote(H1) || '\001' || ctcpQuote(X) || '\001' || ctcpQuote(H2)

Note: The operator || denotes string concatenation.

Of course, there might be zero or more normal text messages and zero or more CTCP messages mixed.

– — Example 1 —————————————————————–

A user (called actor) wanting to send the string:

	Hi there!\nHow are you?

to user victim, i.e. a message where the user has entered an inline newline (how this is done, if at all, differs from client to client), will result internaly in the client in the command:

	PRIVMSG victim :Hi there!\nHow are you? \K?

which will be CTCP quoted into:

	PRIVMSG victim :Hi there!\nHow are you? \\K?

which in turn will be low level quoted into:

	PRIVMSG victim :Hi there!\020nHow are you? \\K?

and sent to the server after appending a newline at the end.

This will arrive on victim’s side as:

	:actor PRIVMSG victim :Hi there!\020nHow are you? \\K?

(where the \\K would look similar to OK in SIS D47 et. al.) which after low level dequoting becomes:

	:actor PRIVMSG victim :Hi there!\nHow are you? \\K?

and after CTCP dequoting:

	:actom PRIVMSG victim :Hi there!\nHow are you? \K?

How this is displayed differs from client to client, but it suggested that a line break should occour between the words “there” and “How”.

– — Example 2 —————————————————————–

If actor’s client wants to send the string “Emacs wins” this might become the string “\n\t\big\020\001\000\\:” when being SED-encrypted [SED is a simple encryption protocol between IRC clients implemented with CTCP. I don’t have any reference for it — Ben] using some key, so the client starts by CTCP-quoting this string into the string “\n\t\big\020\\a\000\\\\:” and builds the M-level message:

	PRIVMSG victim :\001SED \n\t\big\020\\a\000\\\\:\001

which after low level quoting becomes:

	PRIVMSG victim :\001SED \020n\t\big\020\020\\a\0200\\\\:\001

which will be sent to the server, with a newline tacked on.

On victim’s side, the string:

	:actor PRIVMSG victim :\001SED \020n\t\big\020\020\\a\0200\\\\:\001

will be received from the server and low level dequoted into:

	:actor PRIVMSG victim :\001SED \n\t\big\020\\a\000\\\\:\001

whereafter the string “\n\t\big\020\\a\000\\\\:” will be extracted and first CTCP dequoted into “\n\t\big\020\001\000\\:” and then SED decoded getting back “Emacs wins” when using the same key.

– — Example 3 —————————————————————–

If the user actor wants to query the USERINFO of user victim, and is in the middle of a conversation, the client may decide to tack on USERINFO request on the end of a normal text message. Let’s say actor wants to send the textmessage “Say hi to Ron\n\t/actor” and the CTCP request “USERINFO” to victim:

	PRIVMSG victim :Say hi to Ron\n\t/actor



which after CTCP quoting become:

	PRIVMSG victim :Say hi to Ron\n\t/actor



which gets merged into:

	PRIVMSG victim :Say hi to Ron\n\t/actor\001USERINFO\001

and after low level quoting:

	PRIVMSG victim :Say hi to Ron\020n\t/actor\001USERINFO\001

and sent off to the server.

On victim’s side, the message:

	:actor PRIVMSG victim :Say hi to Ron\020n\t/actor\001USERINFO\001

arrives. This gets low level dequoted into:

	:actor PRIVMSG victim :Say hi to Ron\n\t/actor\001USERINFO\001

and thereafter split up into:

	:actor PRIVMSG victim :Say hi to Ron\n\t/actor



After CTCP dequoting both, the message:

	:actor PRIVMSG victim :Say hi to Ron\n\t/actor

gets displayed, while the CTCP command:


gets replied to. The reply might be:

	USERINFO :CS student\n\001test\001

which gets CTCP quoted into:

	USERINFO :CS student\n\\atest\\a

and sent in a NOTICE as it is a reply:

	NOTICE actor :\001USERINFO :CS student\n\\atest\\a\001

and low level quoted into:

	NOTICE actor :\001USERINFO :CS student\020n\\atest\\a\001

after which is it sent to victim’s server.

When arriving on actor’s side, the message:

	:victim NOTICE actor :\001USERINFO :CS student\020n\\atest\\a\001

gets low level dequoted into:

	:victim NOTICE actor :\001USERINFO :CS student\n\\atest\\a\001

At this point, all CTCP replies get extracted, giving 1 CTCP reply and no normal NOTICE:

	USERINFO :CS student\n\\atest\\a

The remaining reply gets CTCP dequoted into:

	USERINFO :CS student\n\001test\001

and presumly displayed to user actor.


Extended data passed between clients can be used to pass structured information between them. Currently known extended data types are:

ACTION – Used to simulate “role playing” on IRC. DCC – Negotiates file transfers and direct tcp chat

		  connections between clients.

SED – Used to send encrypted messages between clients.

ACTION ====== This is used by losers on IRC to simulate “role playing” games. An action message looks like the following:

\001ACTION barfs on the floor.\001

Clients that recieve such a message should format them to indicate the user who did this is performing an “action”. For example, if the user “actor” sent the above message to the channel “#twilight_zone”, other users clients might display the message as:

[ACTION] actor->#twilight_zone: barfs on the floor.

Presumably other users on the channel are suitably impressed.

DCC === DCC stands for something like “Direct Client Connection”. CTCP DCC extended data messages are used to negotiate file transfers between clients and to negotiate chat connections over tcp connections between two clients, with no IRC server involved. Connections between clients involve protocols other than the usual IRC protocol. Due to this complexity, a full description of the DCC protocol is included separately at the end of this document in Appendix A.

SED === SED probably
stands for something like “Simple Encryption D???”. It is used by clients to exchange encrypted messages between clients. A message encoded by SED probably looks something like:

\001SED encrypted-text-goes-here\001

Clients which accept such messages should display them in decrypted form. It would be nice if someone documented this, and included the encryption scheme in an Appendix B.


A request/reply pair is sent between the two clients in two phases. The first phase is to send the request. This is done with a “privmsg” command (either to a nick or to a channel — it doesn’t matter).

The second phase is to send a reply. This is done with a “notice” command.

The known request/reply pairs are for the following commands.

FINGER – Returns the user’s full name, and idle time. VERSION – The version and type of the client. SOURCE – Where to obtain a copy of a client. USERINFO – A string set by the user (never the client coder) CLIENTINFO – Dynamic master index of what a client knows. ERRMSG – Used when an error needs to be replied with. PING – Used to measure the delay of the IRC network

		  between clients.

TIME – Gets the local date and time from other clients.

FINGER ====== This is used to get a user’s real name, and perhaps also the idle time of the user (this usage has been obsoleted by enhancements to the IRC protocol. The request is in a “privmsg” and looks like


while the reply is in a “notice” and looks like

	\001FINGER :#\001

where the # denotes contains information about the users real name, login name at clientmachine and idle time and is of type X-N-AS.

VERSION ======= This is used to get information about the name of the other client and the version of it. The request in a “privmsg” is simply


and the reply

	\001VERSION #:#:#\001

where the first # denotes the name of the client, the second # denotes the version of the client, the third # the enviroment the client is running in.


	X-N-CLN	::= '\000' .. '\071' | '\073' .. '\377'

the client name is a string of type X-N-CLN saying things like “Kiwi” or “ircII”, the version saying things like “5.2” or “2.1.5c”, the enviroment saying things like “GNU Emacs 18.57.19 under SunOS 4.1.1 on Sun SLC” or “Compiled with gcc -ansi under Ultrix 4.0 on VAX-11/730”.


This is used to get information about where to get a copy of the client. The request in a “privmsg” is simply


and the reply is zero or more CTCP replies of the form

	\001SOURCE #:#:#\001

followed by an end marker


where the first # is the name of an Internet host where the client can be gotten from with anonymous FTP the second # a directory names, and the third # a space separated list of files to be gotten from that directory.


	X-N-SPC	::= '\000' .. '\037' | '\041' .. '\377'

the name of the FTP site is to be given by name like “cs.bu.edu” or “funic.funet.fi”.

The file name field is a directory specification optionally followed by one or more file names, delimited by spaces. If only a directory name is given, all files in that directory should be copied when retrieving the clients source. If some files are given, only those files in that directpry should be copied. Note that the spcification allows for all characters but space in the names, this includes allowing :. Examples are “pub/emacs/irc/” to get all files in directory pub/emacs/irc/, the client should be able to first login as user “ftp” and the give the command “CD pub/emacs/irc/”, followed by the command “mget *”. (It of course has to take care of binary and prompt mode too). Another example is “/pub/irc Kiwi.5.2.el.Z” in which case a “CD /pub/irc” and “get Kiwi.5.2.el.Z” is what should be done.

USERINFO ======== This is used to transmit a string which is settable by the user (and never should be set by the client). The query is simply


with the reply

	\001USERINFO :#\001

where the # is the value of the string the client’s user has set.

CLIENTINFO ========== This is for client developers use to make it easier to show other client hackers what a certain client knows when it comes to CTCP. The replies should be fairly verbose explaining what CTCP commands are understood, what arguments are expected of what type, and what replies might be expected from the client.

The query is the word CLIENTINFO in a “privmsg” optionally followed by a colon and one or more specifying words delimited by spaces, where the word CLIENTINFO by itself,


should be replied to by giving a list of known tags (see above in section TAGGED DATA). This is only intended to be read by humans.

With one argument, the reply should be a description of how to use that tag. With two arguments, a description of how to use that tag’s subcommand. And so on.

ERRMSG ====== This is used as a reply whenever an unknown query is seen. Also, when used as a query, the reply should echo back the text in the query, together with an indication that no error has happened. Should the query form be used, it is

	\001ERRMSG #\001

where # is a string containing any character, with the reply

	\001ERRMSG # :#\001

where the first # is the same string as in the query and the second # a short text notifying the user that no error has occurred.

A normal ERRMSG reply which is sent when a corrupted query or some corrupted extended data is received, looks like

	\001ERRMSG # :#\001

where the first # is the the failed query or corrupted extended data and the second # a text explaining what the problem is, like “unknown query” or “failed decrypting text”.

PING ==== Ping is used to measure the time delay between clients on the IRC network. A ping query is encoded in a privmsg, and has the form:

\001PING timestamp\001

where `timestamp’ is the current time encoded in any form the querying client finds convienent. The replying client sends back an identical message inside a notice:

\001PING timestamp\001

The querying client can then subtract the recieved timestamp from the current time to obtain the delay between clients over the IRC network.

TIME ==== Time queries are used to determine what time it is where another user’s client is running. This can be useful to determine if someone is probably awake or not, or what timezone they are in. A time query has the form:


On reciept of such a query in a privmsg, clients should reply with a notice of the form:

\001TIME :human-readable-time-string\001

For example:

\001TIME :Thu Aug 11 22:52:51 1994 CST\001



	PRIVMSG victim :\001FINGER\001

might return

	:victim NOTICE actor :\001FINGER :Please check my USERINFO
	instead :Klaus Zeuge (sojge@mizar) 1 second has passed since
	victim gave a command last.\001

(this is only one line) or why not

	:victim NOTICE actor :\001FINGER :Please check my USERINFO
	instead :Klaus Zeuge (sojge@mizar) 427 seconds (7 minutes and
	7 seconds) have passed since victim gave a command last.\001

if Klaus Zeuge happens to be lazy? 🙂


	PRIVMSG victim :\001CLIENTINFO\001

might return

	:victim NOTICE actor :\001CLIENTINFO :You can request help of the
	an argument to CLIENTINFO.\001



might return

	:victim NOTICE actor :\001CLIENTINFO :CLIENTINFO with 0
	arguments gives a list of known client query keywords. With 1
	argument, a description of the client query keyword is

while sending

	PRIVMSG victim :\001clientinfo clientinfo\001

probably will return something like

	:victim NOTICE actor :\001ERRMSG clientinfo clientinfo :Query is

as tag “clientinfo” isn’t known.



might return

	:victim NOTICE actor :\001CLIENTINFO :ERRMSG is the given answer
	on seeing an unknown keyword. When seeing the keyword ERRMSG,
	it works like an echo.\001


 victim :\001USERINFO\001

might return the somewhat pathetically long

	:victim NOTICE actor :\001USERINFO :I'm studying computer
	science in Uppsala, I'm male (somehow, that seems to be an
	important matter on IRC:-) and I speak fluent swedish, decent
	german, and some english.\001


	PRIVMSG victim :\001VERSION\001

might return:

	:victim NOTICE actor :\001VERSION Kiwi:5.2:GNU Emacs
	18.57.19 under SunOS 4.1.1 on Sun
	SLC:FTP.Lysator.LiU.SE:/pub/emacs Kiwi-5.2.el.Z

if the client is named Kiwi of version 5.2 and is used under GNU Emacs 18.57.19 running on a Sun SLCwith SunOS 4.1.1. The client claims a copy of it can be found with anonymous FTP on FTP.Lysator.LiU.SE after giving the FTP command “cd /pub/emacs/”. There, one should get files Kiwi-5.2.el.Z and Kiwi.README; presumably one of the files tells how to proceed with building the client after having gotten the files.

Appendix A — A description of the DCC protocol

	By Troy Rollo (troy@plod.cbme.unsw.oz.au)
	Revised by Ben Mesander (ben@gnu.ai.mit.edu)

	Troy Rollo, the original implementor of the DCC protocol, said

that the DCC protocol was never designed to be portable to clients other than IRCII. However, time has shown that DCC is useable in environments other than IRCII. IRC clients in diverse languages, such as ksh, elisp, C, and perl have all had DCC implementations.

		Why DCC?

	DCC allows the user to overcome some limitations of the IRC

server network and to have a somewhat more secure chat connection while still in an IRC-oriented protocol.

	DCC uses direct TCP connections between the clients taking

part to carry data. There is no flood control, so packets can be sent at full speed, and there is no dependance on server links (or load imposed on them). In addition, since only the initial handshake for DCC conections is passed through the IRC network, it makes it harder for operators with cracked servers to spy on personal messages.


	The initial socket for a DCC connection is created

by the side that initiates (Offers) the connection. This socket should be a TCP socket bound to INADDR_ANY, listening for connections.

	The Initiating client, on creating the socket, should

send its details to the target client using the CTCP command DCC. This command takes the form:

	DCC type argument address port [size]

type – The connection type. argument – The connectin type dependant argument. address – The host address of the initiator as an integer. port – The port or the socket on which the initiator expects

	   to receive the connection.

size – If the connection type is “SEND” (see below), then size

	   will indicate the size of the file being offered. Obsolete
	   IRCII clients do not send this, so be prepared if this is
	   not present.

The address, port, and size should be sent as ASCII representations of the decimal integer formed by converting the values to host byte order and treating them as an unsigned long, unsigned short, and unsigned long respectively.

	Implementations of the DCC protocol should be prepared to

accept further arguments in a CTCP DCC message. There has been some discussion of adding another argument that would specify the type of file being transferred – text, binary, and perhaps others if DCC is implemented on operating systems other than UNIX. If additional arguments are added to the protocol, they should have semantics such that clients which ignore them will interoperate with clients that don’t in a sensible way.

	The following DCC connection types are defined:

Type Purpose Argument CHAT To carry on a semi-secure conversation the string “chat” SEND To send a file to the recipient the file name

Although the following subcommand is included in the IRCII DCC command, it does _not_ transmit a DCC request via IRC, and thus is not discussed in this document:

TALK Establishes a TALK connection


	The CHAT and SEND connection types should not be

accepted automatically as this would create the potential for terrorism. Instead, they should notify the user that an offer has been made, and allow the user to accept it.

	The recipient should have the opportunity to rename a file

offered with the DCC SEND command prior to retrieving it. It is also desirable to ensure that the offered file will not overwrite an existing file.

	Older IRCII clients send the entire pathname of the file being

transmitted. This is annoying, and newer clients should simply send the filename portion of the file being transmitted.

	The port number should be scrutinized - if the port number is

in the UNIX reserved port range, the connection should only be accepted with caution.

	If it is not possible in the client implementation language to

handle a 32-bit integer (for instance emacs 18 elisp and ksh 88), then it is often possible to use the hostname in the originating PRIVMSG.

	The following are the steps which should occur in the clients

(this description assumes use of the BSD socket interface on a UNIX system).


	DCC command issued.
	Create a socket, bind it to INADDR_ANY, port 0, and
		make it passive (a listening socket).
	Send the recipient a DCC request via CTCP supplying
		the address and port of the socket. (This
		is ideally taken from the address of the local
		side of the socket which is connected to a
		server. This is presumably the interface on
		the host which is closest to the rest of
		the net, and results in one less routing hop
		in the case of gateway nodes).
	Continue normally until a connection is received.

	On a connection:
	Accept the connection.
	Close the original passive socket.
	Conduct transaction on the new socket.


	CTCP DCC request received.
	Record information on the DCC request and notify the user.

	At this point, the USER should be able to abort (close) the
	request, or accept it. The request should be accepted with
	a command specifying the sender, type, and argument, or
	a subset of these where no ambiguity exists.

	If accepted, create a TCP socket.
	Connect the new socket to the address and port supplied.
	Conduct the transaction over the socket.

		Type specific details.

CHAT Data sent across a CHAT connection should be sent line-by-line

	without any prefixes or commands. A CHAT connection ends when
	one party issues the DCC CLOSE command to their clients, which
	causes the socket to be closed and the information on the connection
	to be discarded. The terminating character of each line is a 
	newline character, '\n'.

FILE Data is sent in packets, rather than dumped in a stream manner.

	This allows the DCC SEND connection to survive where an FTP
	connection might fail. The size of the packets is up to the
	client, and may be set by the user. Smaller packets result
	in a
 higher probability of survival over bad links.
	The recipient should acknowledge each packet by transmitting
	the total number of bytes received as an unsigned, 4 byte
	integer in network byte order. The sender should not continue
	to transmit until the recipient has acknowledged all data
	already transmitted. Additionally, the sender should not
	close the connection until the last byte has been
	acknowledged by the recipient.

	Older IRCII clients do not send the file size of the file
	being transmitted via DCC. For those clients, note that it is
	not possible for the recipient to tell if the entire file has
	been received - only the sender has that information, although
	IRCII does not report it. Users generally verify the transfer
	by checking file sizes. Authors of clients are urged to use
	the size feature.

	Note also that no provision is made for text translation.

	The original block size used by IRCII was 1024. Other clients

have adopted this. Note, however, that an implementation should accept any blocksize. IRCII currently allows a user-settable blocksize.